Skates – one of the oldest human inventions, and very popular in the modern world. They took a prominent part in the world of professional sport, and in the daily lives of millions of fans of active pastime in the fresh frosty air.
It is believed that the first happy owners skates were Cimmerians – nomadic tribes, who lived 3200 years ago in the northern Black Sea coast. They were tied to the feet of animal bones. Also makes many other nations, including our ancestors, for many, many centuries.
From the 13th century served man skates a means of transportation on the frozen rivers, lakes and canals in the Nordic countries. Even then, the Dutch began to make skates consisting of a wooden framework into which the metal strips. These skates straps were attached to the shoe. (In the photo: the skates of the time in the modern versions.)
On the works of the Dutch painter Hendrick Avercamp, written in the early 1600s, is clearly seen as not only the ice skating move, but already playing a certain game with sticks in their hands. Such Holland saw Peter I during his famous trip to Europe, from which, among other innovations he brought to Russia and skates, permeated Dutch folk fun.
But already the modern Dutch skate and play hockey on the frozen canals of Amsterdam, continuing the traditions of their ancestors. As if he had not passed since already 400 years old!
Peter would not have been a great reformer, had just borrowed a European invention. It is believed that he made the first breakthrough in the evolution of skates, skates inventing nailed to the shoe.
Incidentally, the word “skate” is derived, as is not difficult to guess the word horse. And this is due to the fact that the Russian masters often carved on the long curved noses that belonged to the first skates, figure horses.
After Peter’s skating in Russia forgotten almost one hundred years. Interest in them is returned when the fashion was all in English, and skates at the time have become very popular in the UK. (View in the Regent’s Park, London, 1838)
And so, by the way, and ride in the contemporary London.
The first ever World Speed Skating Championships held in January 1889 in Amsterdam, and there was a champion … Russian skater Alexander Panshin (pictured). It is believed that he came up with skates – removed interfering curl, lengthen the blade to the speed was higher, and suggested the use of a tube into which the blade is soldered. These skates for running and remained for many years ahead.
A month later, in February 1889, in Moscow, Petrovka, the first in the Russian championship in skating. Certainly not without Panshin.
Only in the 90-ies of XX century device skates was radically changed. There are brand new skates with “rip” heel that athletes nicknamed “slippers”. They first used at the Olympics in Nagano.
Evolution of curly horses was no less exciting. The first club of fans of figure skating has appeared in Edinburgh in 1742. But the first who united the dancing and skating became an American Heync Jackson – he was the first to ride in theatrical costumes and the music. And it happened in the middle of the 19th century. Haynes called the “father of figure skating.”
In 1871 the figure skating has been officially recognized as a sport, and in 1908 it became the first figure skating winter sport, which came in the Summer Olympic Games in London. (Photo: British skaters at the Olympics in London 1908)
In the 40s, a new kind of figure skating – ice dancing. In the Olympics they included only in 1976. A Soviet skaters – Ludmila Pakhomov and Alexander Gorshkov – became the first Olympic champion in the discipline.
As for the horses themselves – in the early 20th century, curly shoes skates are much shorter and got rivets. Heel, by contrast, grew, and the blade came battlements. Their proposed Swedish skater Ulrich Salchow – the first Olympic champion in figure skating at the Games in London in 1908 (see photo).
The next time skates changed only in the 50’s, c development of ice dancing. Blades at the “dancers” are much shorter, so as not to hurt each other, and boots – much softer.
Ice hockey in our country officially appeared only in the 46th year, almost 60 years later than in many other countries. But “Russian hockey” called hockey. Ice hockey – the invention of Canadians for the first time its rules formulated in Montreal in 1879. Hockey skates then were like jogging, but evolution is not spared and.
In the late 50’s hockey skates called their “spotykachki.” They were more like braces for almost a right angle blades. They were replaced by “Eider” differing shortened blade. In the 60’s skates became firmer stability and maneuverability. At the tip of the blade, made in the form of a tube, there was a plastic protector. And in the early ’70s hockey skates purchased almost contemporary look. Nevertheless, because of the height ridge between the blade and the shoe there is a gap, which sometimes flew washer.
New advanced technologies focused on comfort, provides the best results – they allow the skates to take individual form of athlete’s foot, subjected to special heat treatment. This process is called thermoforming.
In addition to professional sports, skating as a leisure activity has been gaining more and more popularity around the world and in our country. Everywhere open rollers, get together lovers of fun and to spend time outdoors. (In the photo: Muscovites skate park)