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The lowest temperature on Earth

Did you expect such a picture under such a title? And it immediately occurred to me. By the way, we need to google it from what movie.

“The lowest temperature that has ever been seen on the surface of the earth until recently, is in the following figures: on January 15, 1885 in Verkhoyansk, in Eastern Siberia, stood 68 degrees below zero. Such a temperature has never been observed in the polar regions by any polar expedition, “- the monthly magazine Novoe Slovo in the June 1910 issue shared this information with its readers, referring in turn to the English meteorological publication.

Since then, the record of low temperature recorded on the surface of the Earth has been increased by more than 20 degrees Celsius. July 21, 1983 at the Soviet Antarctic station “East”, located in East Antarctica, was recorded temperature of 89.2 ° C. At the moment it is the absolute planetary minimum of air temperature for the entire history of instrumental meteorological observations.

But even this is not the limit …


The station “Vostok”, which is located in the heart of the Antarctic continent, is now considered the South Pole of the cold of our planet. That is, the region of the globe with the lowest recorded temperatures in this hemisphere.

For the title of the North Pole of Cold, the main contenders are now two settlements of Yakutia – Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon.

In Verkhoyansk in 1885, the temperature was recorded at 67.8 ° C, which we mentioned at the beginning of this note. And in February 1933 this record was repeated. At the same time, a temperature of 67.7 ° C was recorded in Oymyakon in February 1933 – that is, it was 0.1 ° C warmer. However, there is documented unconfirmed information that a lower temperature was registered in the Oymyakon region – 71.2 ° C (in 1924) and -77.8 ° C (in 1938). But the official status of the North Pole of the cold still belonged to Verkhoyansk.

Until recently…

Researchers from the University of Colorado in Boulder recorded that under specific conditions in one of the regions of Antarctica, the temperature can drop to almost -100 degrees Celsius.

This is the Eastern Antarctic Plateau – a huge empty territory, starting near the South Pole. This region is located about 3,500 meters above sea level; the air above the Plateau is extremely sparse and dry.

In 1983, in this region of Antarctica, Soviet specialists were able to record a record low temperature of -89 degrees Celsius, and then, in 2013, satellite data found that in some places the temperature could drop even lower – down to -93 ° C. a new study, scientists decided to see whether in this region of Antarctica it can become even colder.

The researchers analyzed the data obtained from NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites, as well as from the POES (Polar Operational Environmental Satellites) satellites of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; data were collected by the apparatus during the Antarctic winters between 2004 and 2016. Specialists have found that snow surface temperatures below -90 ° C on the Eastern Antarctic Plateau are common in winter. At the same time in almost 100 points, scattered on hundreds of kilometers, the temperature dropped to -98 degrees Celsius. According to the researchers, all these points were located in shallow faults in the ice cover, where in calm weather cold rarefied air can drop and stay there for a long time (the longer it is there, the colder the snow surface becomes).

It is important to note that satellite data allow us to estimate the temperatures of the snow surface, but to measure the temperature of the air, a terrestrial meteorological station is required. In this case, according to the calculations of the researchers, the air temperature – over the coldest points found by specialists – can be in the region of -94 degrees Celsius. To get more accurate data, scientists plan to visit the region in the coming years – of course, in the summer – and place the necessary tools.

The study was published in the journal Geophysical Review Letters, briefly reported by the portal New Atlas.

sources
http://www.nat-geo.ru/fact/38899-samaya-nizkaya-temperatura-na-poverkhnosti-zemli/ 
https://www.popmech.ru/science/news-429802-zafiksirovana-samaya-nizkaya- temperatura-na-zemle

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