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Saving 9 millimeters

In ancient times and until the beginning of the

XIX century, stones from the kidneys were removed by lithotomy. In this case, the doctor makes a surgical incision and removes the entire stone. This procedure was rather painful (about any narcosis it did not even go), so 
many patients died right on the operating table. 
So it was until Jean Civial invented in 1824 a lithotriptor.

Jean Sivial (1792-1867), the inventor of the lithotriptor, who performed the first operation of bloodless stone crushing – lithotripsy (January 13, 1824), the founder of minimally invasive surgery, the head of the world’s first specialized department of lithotripsy (1829). 

lithotripter, 1824 year.

With this tool, it was possible to break the stone in the kidneys of the patient and remove them through the urethra. The urethra is stretchable. By experience of himself, Jean found that it can enter a waxed tubule with a diameter of up to 9 millimeters. With a certain skill – almost painless. These painful experiments initially helped Sivial to work out a sparing technique. Later he wrote: “When you see how a doctor sharply injects a probe, you can be sure that he never sounded himself.”
The idea was to hold in this tube the clamp, which captures the foreign body, and the borer, which it is bored. Then the corks are removed, and the bladder is washed with warm water, from which fragments of stone are removed. For several sessions of 20-30 minutes, as experience has shown, you can destroy even the most solid oxalate. Crushing Sivial called in Greek lithotripsy, and rock crusher – lithotriptor. 

Before going on a well-deserved rest, he made lithotripsy more than 1055 times. The patients of his department were visited by 199 doctors and surgeons. http: //medportal.ru/mednovosti/news/2017/01/13/232bladdersto …

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