The status of the city has been controversial for almost seventy years.View of the Jerusalem Old City from the Mount of Olives
On December 6, Donald Trump said that the United States recognized Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish state of Israel. Earlier, he told the head of the Palestinian Autonomy Mahmoud Abbas and Jordan’s King Abdullah II that he was going to transfer the American embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
The news that Trump can meet “one of his most reliable allies” to Israel in the Middle East conflict has caused a wave of outrage and talk of escalation among leaders of different countries – both in the Middle East and in Europe.
we gathered a brief chain of major events describing the difficult fate of the modern Israeli capital (which, apart from the United States, is recognized by none of the founding powers of the UN) and explaining why the city’s status has been controversial for almost seventy years.
- November 29, 1947 – The UN General Assembly agreed on a plan for the partition of part of the British Mandate in the Middle East and recommended the establishment of a Jewish and Arab state on its territory. Jerusalem was to become a special territory administered by the UN. Jews supported this plan, and the Arabs – rejected because of the size and quality of their territory.
November 24, 1947 – “Palestine must be enveloped in fire and blood, if Jews receive at least some part of it.”
April 16, 1948 – “Representatives of the Jewish Agency told yesterday that they were not the attackers, but the Arabs started the battle. We do not deny this. We told the whole world that we will fight. ”
- May 14, 1948 – Chairman of the Jewish Agency David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the independence of Israel immediately after the withdrawal of British troops from the Mandated Territory.
- May 15, 1948 – The army of the League of Arab States, which included Egypt, Syria and Transjordan, launched an offensive on the British-liberated territories. The Jordanian troops attacked Jerusalem and within half a year established full control over its eastern part (including the historic district of the Old City).
- December 13, 1948 – Transjordan annexed East Jerusalem. This decision was recognized only by Great Britain, the USSR and Pakistan.
- December 5, 1949 – Israel declares West Jerusalem as its capital. Six months later, a similar decision with respect to East Jerusalem takes and Transjordan, denying Jews access to the shrines of the Old City and the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives.
- June 5, 1967 – Jordanian mortar gunners, contrary to requests from the Israeli authorities for peace, fired upon West Jerusalem. After that, IDF soldiers went into a counteroffensive and after three days of position battles seized East Jerusalem, including the Old City.
- July 30, 1980 – The Israeli parliament passed a law that Jerusalem is the single and indivisible capital of the country, and power in it can not be transferred to any foreign organization.
- August 20, 1980 – The UN Security Council adopted a resolution in which Israel is called the “occupying power” and ruled that members of the organization should not recognize the law on the capital.
- July 8, 1995 – The US Congress passed a law under which the United States embassy should be transferred from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Over the next twenty years, three US presidents – Bill Clinton, George Bush and Barack Obama – abstained from implementing this document, despite the funds allocated from the federal budget.
- Mayor of Jerusalem, Nir Barkat, the day before called the decision of the US authorities a historic step and urged Trump not only to move the embassy, but also directly recognize the city as the capital of Israel.
- The leader of the Meretz party, Zahava Galion, said that Trump’s intention could “lead to an unnecessary explosion,” and Jerusalem would be the capital of Israel even without an American embassy.
- The leader of the pro-Arab party, TAAL Ahmed Tibi, called Trump’s decision a “political attack”.
- The head of the Arab bloc in the Knesset, Ayman Uda, called the US president a “pyromaniac”, ready to give fire to a whole region from his insanity.
- Sources BuzzFeed in the highest American leadership told that the decision to postpone the embassy does not change the official US approach to the “boundaries and dimensions” of Jerusalem. They added that the construction of the embassy is unlikely to take less than three to four years.
- The head of EU diplomacy, Frederic Magerini, called on the US president to “avoid any actions that undermine efforts” to implement a “meaningful peace process”.
- British Prime Minister Teresa May clarified that the position of the kingdom over Jerusalem does not change, and the city should become a joint capital for both Israel and the Palestinian state.
- Jordan’s King Abdullah II said that Trump’s decision could undermine the efforts of the US administration to establish peace in the Middle East. The status of this city the monarch called the key for stability in the region.
- Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan called the decision of the United States “a red line for Muslims.”
- The US consulate in Jerusalem warned American citizens that they are not recommended to visit the Old Town and other places of large crowds. Official representatives of the diplomatic mission were allowed to move around this area only in case of actual necessity and only with additional protection.
Security 🚨 Message for US 🇺🇸 Citizens ⬇️ pic.twitter.com/NCXhVK7daD
— USCGJerusalem (@USCGJerusalem) December 5, 2017