T-34, “Katyusha”, IL-2 – these models of military equipment have long been heard at least by songs, films and video games. But in the Great Patriotic War, of course, involved many other aircraft, tanks, cars, self-propelled guns and so on. Some samples were experienced, the latter were not widely used, the third was unlucky with reliability, but all of them somehow helped to bring Victory Day closer and make it possible. Today we recall the rare, unusual and little-known technique of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War.
- Tank T-35
- Tank KV-2
- Aerosani RF-8
- Tank T-38
- Fighter La-7
- Bronevik BA-64
- Self-propelled artillery mount SU-152
Tank truly rare: released about 60 copies. It was produced even before the war, in the thirties. During the production, the design was gradually improved: the engines grew in capacity, the engineers selected different thicknesses of armor plates, the design of the towers also changed.
The main feature of the T-35 – it has five towers at once, the main one was unified with a tower of a more massive T-28. Guns caliber of 45-76.2 mm were arranged in two rows, which allowed to conduct close fire in almost all directions. To manage this all had to have a large crew – up to 11 people, depending on the specific tank instance.
The capacity of the gasoline engine with twelve cylinders was 500 liters. from. Speed on the road did not exceed 30 km / h, and on rough terrain it was about 12 km / h.
But the tank suffered from a number of problems: the towers turned slowly, it was difficult for the commander to manage such a large crew, and the armor did not sufficiently protect people and important aggregates.
T-35 found only the first months of the war. Several cars were lost in combat, others destroyed the crews so that they would not get to the enemy. It is known that one trophy T-35 was used by the Germans in the defense of Berlin. The need to create a new tank led to the emergence of a series of “KV”.
The heavy tank KV-1, before the advent of the successor, was simply called KV (“Clim Voroshilov”), was a real fortress on caterpillars: it was extremely difficult to break through its armor. But with its monstrousness, the tank itself was not properly strong. So the military instructed the engineers of the Kirov plant to create a modified version with more powerful weapons.
It was decided to put the howitzer in the caliber 152 mm (in KV-1 a 76 mm cannon was used). This, in turn, required a change in the tower: there was no way to place new weapons on the old “head”. As a result, various modifications of the “KV” were first called extremely simply: “tank with a small tower” (KB-1) and “tank with a large tower” (KB-2).
The machine used a V12 diesel engine for 600 horsepower. The motor was to pull 52 tons of weight (only the armored plates were 75 mm thick, hence this mass), with which he quite successfully coped. On a flat road, the speed was about 34 km / h, and on the rough terrain it fell about twice.
According to various sources, about two or three hundred KV-2s were produced. The tanks proved to be rare, but the enemies were certainly remembered: cases were described when the KV-2 successfully maintained dozens of direct hits of anti-tank missiles and was still on track.
In this light, it is especially insulting that the most powerful technique suffered from a shortage of fuel and spare parts – it is reported that the tank was not lucky with the transmission, which was periodically capricious.
Combat aerosleys began to make for the first winter of the Great Patriotic War. The crew consisted of two people, they were located one after another. In front was the shooter, behind him was the driver, and after him there was a 50 l motor car. from. The case was used wooden – the tree was not in such deficiency, as metal. But because of this RF-8 lost their armor.
The protection of the crew was ensured, in fact, only maneuverability and speed of movement. In 1942, began to install more powerful aircraft engines (approximately 120 hp), which improved the situation – the maximum speed was about 75 km / h.
In the northern regions of the USSR, aerosleighs were widely used: where the snow held for a long time, the operation continued until the middle of spring. Due to high speed and maneuverability, RF-8 was often used for reconnaissance and sudden attacks.
Development began in the second half of the thirties. It was a modified modification of the T-37A, the world’s first serial floating tank. In fact, the model was “amphibian”: rested in a swamp or a lake, the tank could calmly overcome the obstacle. The problem of T-37A was low reliability: the car was regularly out of order, which is unacceptable under war conditions.
The dimensions of the T-38 have changed: it was lower and wider than the predecessor, which had a good effect on stability. But there were still problems, and the designers had to work on the version of the T-38M with error correction. The new engine from the GAZ-M1 provided the best power, also the specialists changed the tracks, made adjustments to the units and assemblies.
By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War these tanks were sometimes used for fire support of infantry. The problem is that the T-38 was not specifically designed for cover: the armor was weak, the tank was more intended for reconnaissance. T-38 and T-37A caught only the initial stage of the war – many copies were destroyed, and until 1945 there were few copies.
The aircraft entered service only one year before the end of the war. This fighter along with the Yak-3 is called one of the best aircraft of the Great Patriotic period. It is a modified version of La-5FN – the model has become easier and faster. The main enemy of La-7 was the German FW 190A. Fortunately for Soviet pilots, Lavochkin’s plane was better for maneuverability.
The plane remained with a wooden structure: the use of metal could make the La-7 even better, but during the war it was necessary to save. Armament usually consisted of two or three cannon with a caliber of 20 mm. At the same time, bombs were used.
On the comfort of the pilot then did not really think: it is noted that the cabin was very hot (up to 40 degrees), besides the interior was poorly ventilated. But in the battles La-7 proved to be excellent.
This is the first armored car serial production in the USSR. The car took the all-road GAZ-64 as a basis, but the controls were changed, and the springs were strengthened to hold the increased mass. It was used mainly for reconnaissance and support of infantry in open clashes.
The BA-64 entered service in the spring of 1942. The car had good cross-country ability: it climbed up to 30 degrees and passed fords of almost meter depth – now similar characteristics can be found in civil off-road cars, but by the standards of the forties the indicators were worthy. Of the weapons on the BA-64 was a 7.62 mm machine gun.
To the defects of the armored car was, in fact, the chassis of the GAZ-64 – the wheelbase was narrow, which caused the model to suffer from insufficient stability. The solution to the problem was the modification of BA-64B. It was based on the GAZ-67B, which was wider than the GAZ-64.
The self-propelled gun received a sonorous nickname “St. John’s wort”, clearly hinting at the ability to smash the German “Tigers” into chips. In general, so it was: SU-152 participated for the first time in battle on the Kursk Bulge (1943) and quickly proved itself in the battles against heavy tanks.
The figure in the title indicates the caliber of the gun – 152 mm. The automatic control system was developed on the basis of the KV-1s tank (the lighter, more dynamic and reliable version of KV-1), so the undercarriage was unified.
Among the minuses of the model indicate problems with ventilation of the combat compartment, as well as shortcomings in the reservation. These moments were taken into account when creating the ISU-152, which was developed on the basis of the IS tank. Up to now, only three copies of the SU-152 have survived.