“May” decrees from 2012 have not been fulfilled so far.
After his fourth inauguration, Vladimir Putin signed a decree on measures the government should take before 2024. Officially, the document is called “On national goals and strategic tasks of the development of the Russian Federation”, and without them “breakthrough” development in the scientific and technological and other spheres is allegedly impossible.
The media have already called the new decree “May” by analogy with those that Putin formulated after his third inauguration in 2012. The President acknowledged that these instructions have not been fully implemented so far and are designed for the period until 2020. Experts noted that some of those decrees contained an overestimated bar, and complained about the inconsistency of the items.
How exactly growth will be ensured in many areas, the government has not yet determined, but according to Bloomberg, spending only on health, infrastructure and education will grow by 10 trillion rubles. Among the options – the emergence of a new sales tax. It is proposed to save on defense and national security.
Life expectancy and mortality
Now the average life expectancy in Russia is 72.5 years. According to the UN, this is roughly the 125th indicator in the world. By 2024 the life expectancy should increase to 78 years, and by 2030 – to 80 years . “Healthy life” – such a wording in the document is not explained in addition – should last on average to 67 years.
Putin did not leave the topic of demography. The total fertility rate or “average number of births per woman in a lifetime” should increase to 1.7. Although in April the Rossiyskaya Gazeta reported that the average Russian figure is already 1.762, and in the Far East it is far ahead of the country.
By 2024 the Ministry of Health was instructed to reduce the death rate of able-bodied citizens from diseases of the circulatory system (up to 450 cases per 100 thousand) and from benign and malignant formations – up to 185 cases. Also, Putin demanded that in infancy, up to 4.5 cases per thousand children die.
While the bill is considered in the State Duma with a possible rejection of US-made medicines, Putin proposes to increase the export of Russian medical services at least four times compared with 2017 . The volume is estimated at a billion dollars a year.
Putin demanded from the government that medical organizations should not have a shortage of employees, and every citizen could undergo a medical examination at least once a year. There are also less concrete measures like “simplifying the appointment for a doctor” and “optimal accessibility” of first aid for remote areas.
Education and Science
Putin instructed to make the Russian education “globally competitive” and to introduce Russia among the top 10 countries in terms of “quality of general education” . By this means education from preschool to secondary general, not including vocational.
It is not known which rating will be taken by the Russian authorities, but according to the UN education level index Russia ranks 57th. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development put Russia on the 33rd place following the results of the study of general school education.
The government needs to ensure the upbringing of a harmoniously developed and socially responsible person on the basis of the spiritual and moral values of the peoples of the Russian Federation, historical and national cultural traditions.
According to the decree, by 2024, Russia must be among the five “leading countries in the world” for conducting research and development in priority areas.
Poverty and money
By the end of 2017, the poverty level of Russians has reached a maximum in the last six years – 13.8% or 20.3 million people, according to Rosstat. By decree, the poverty level in Russia should be halved .
Putin promised that the growth of real incomes of the population and pensions will be higher than the level of inflation. The number of employees in the sphere of small and medium-sized businesses will increase to 25 million people.
By 2024, the mortgage rate should be less than 8% – with the acquisition or construction of housing by middle-income families. According to the Central Bank, in April 2018, the weighted average rate on loans issued is 9.73%. At least five million families have to improve their living conditions every year.
If you believe the decree, citizens can, by some simplistic mechanism, move from unfit homes to new ones, retaining their housing rights. The new rules should be developed by the government. How these mechanisms will correlate with the renovation program in Moscow – was not explained.
In the case of an accident, by 2024 it is assumed that the mortality rate on the roads will drop to four people per 100,000. Now it is 3.5 times more. By 2030 it is planned to “strive” to zero mortality rate in case of accidents .
It should be expected that the government will tighten the responsibility for violation of traffic rules and will increase the requirements for the training of drivers – exactly, it is not yet clear. Putin also intends to introduce “automated and robotic technologies” for the organization of traffic and control on traffic rules.
Against the backdrop of scandals with landfills in the Moscow region, the decree provides for the liquidation of “unauthorized” landfills and the creation of conditions for recycling where there are solid municipal waste. Such systems should be created in all regions of Russia, but it is not yet known – when this will be possible and how much money will be needed.
Separately mentioned cities, which require at least 20% to reduce the level of harmful emissions – Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Lipetsk, Magnitogorsk, Mednogorsk, Nizhny Tagil, Novokuznetsk, Norilsk, Omsk, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets and Chita. Obviously, these are the centers of an emergency situation. At the same time, Putin demanded that Baikal, Volga, Don, Ob, Yenisei, and other unique lakes and rivers be cleared of debris.
“Spirituality” and cinema
Putin plans to create virtual concert halls in at least 500 cities of Russia. This means direct broadcasts of concerts and other events that you can watch without leaving the apartment. Now such services are provided, including the Philharmonic of Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The government should also provide cinemas in all communities where less than 500,000 people live . True, the decree only talks about showing “national movies”, but how they will monitor such a restriction – it was not specified.
All this is necessary to follow the wording in the decree, “to strengthen civil identity on the basis of the spiritual, moral and cultural values of the peoples of the Russian Federation”.