Among alcoholic beverages produced from grain, whiskey, no doubt, the most complex whiskey composition. They account for a number of brands, which you can imagine. But the world of whiskey fame was due to selfless labor of many generations of people who put the soul into the creation of the most famous brands of the drink. Diletant. media talks about the history of this drink.
Spirits can get out of anything. For this fit any feedstock containing sugar (carbohydrates) – grape syrup (actually, the waste product of cane sugar), sugar cane, any kind of grain, any kind of fruit, cacti, milk, potatoes, sugar beets, and even wood (if it is pre- processed accordingly).
Therefore, people have always received alcohol from the raw material that was at hand. When the Celts – the first people who learned how to make liquor from grain – spread throughout the world, they began to use the grains that grow better in the new habitats.
On the rocky northern islands of Scotland and Ireland, grapes and fruits do not grow very well. Therefore, the local population has adapted for this purpose barley, from which obtained in ancient times, the first whiskey.
In America of old corn grew well, and American whiskey (bourbon) began to drive out of it, in a colder climate in Canada is happiest rye, and in Japan for the preparation of whiskey, along with barley began to apply Fig. But empirically, it became clear that the best fermentation mash very good to add a little barley malt.
The right to be called the birthplace of whiskey challenged Scotland and Ireland
Modern science has proved that barley malt contains the greatest amount of enzymes required for the conversion of starch grains into sugars that can be fermented. So now all countries in any cereal mixture intended for the manufacture of whiskey, add at least 10% of barley malt.
The right to be called the birthplace of whiskey traditionally challenged each other Scotland and Ireland. The history of the beginning of the whiskey production is lost in the mists of time, and the two countries are forever arguing about who owns the palm. It is believed that the art of distillation was brought to Scotland by Christian missionaries, who in turn took possession of them from the Crusaders who brought distillation from the Middle East.
Distillation in those days was quite simple – Braga embedded in a copper alembic, resembles a huge kettle and planted beneath the fire, home-brewed beer in the kettle to boil, rising as a result of evaporation of the liquid vapors cooled in the coil and condense, condensation dripping into the receiving dish – usually clay bowl. And so on ad infinitum – flooded, surpassed, cleared his alembic, filled, surpassed …
Scots slightly changed the process of replacing the wine grape Palestine, where the humble knights fought the Holy Sepulchre, without forgetting the pleasures of the world, on its own barley beer, and called the resulting drink “Whiskey Baa» (uisge beatha), which in local dialect means “water of life “.
This drink, because of the absolute unpronounceable names of his British invaders appreciate it gradually changed its name – from the «uisge» he became «uisce», then «uiskie» and finally, «whisky». In determining the palm Scots reaffirm their superiority first written mention of whiskey dates back to 1494 year.
Although Scottish deceit, cunning Irish argue that whiskey – the gift of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. As soon as he stepped on the shore of the Emerald Island (as the Irish poetically called his home), he immediately began just three charitable deeds – to prepare “holy water”, pay the true faith of the Gentiles (except as with its help) and to expel from Ireland poisonous snakes ( By the way, he drove all of them).
By the way, disagreement on the issue of primogeniture amber drink so strong that the Scots and Irish even write the word “whiskey” in different ways – in Scotland it is the mark of «whisky», writes the Irish «whiskey». Both are in one voice declare that this is a fundamentally different things, but pronounced the same.
Whatever it was, but Irish whiskey rocked the whole world much earlier than the Scots. The reason for this was about the same as the fact that in the history of cognac and Armagnac. While proud of the Scots, constantly at war with the British, occupied the perimeter defense in their mountains, where among other things themselves persecuted, and then themselves drank his own whiskey, the Irish not only persecuted but also sold his whiskey to the British, and they in turn resold it Worldwide.
In Ireland, the first patent for the production of whiskey was issued by the British Crown in the person of Vice Lord Sir Arthur Chichester in January 1608 Walter Taylor from County Galway. The patent was issued for t. N. “Roelti» (royalty) – «royal share,” as it was called a tax on business activity. The patent holder can in turn sublicense controlled territory.
Territorial monopoly existed a relatively short time, been replaced by a royal Excise Service, the forerunner of the modern tax police. By Christmas Day, December 24, 1661, in Ireland were taxed alcoholic beverages.
Register distilleries until 1761 was voluntary, and officially it was necessary to pay the tax only to registered producers. Landowners are responsible for it, which was not much sense to legalize businesses that entirely depend on them as landowners themselves could collect tribute in their territory. In addition, the tax is paid to sell, and not with the produced alcohol – what’s the point was to declare the entire whiskey distillery even had a license? But big production in the major cities to hide from the tax was not possible, and therefore known date of establishment of many businesses at that time.
The Irish say that whiskey – St. Patrick’s Day gift
Even 10 years later, in 1771, the British long and disapproving Saw overlook Irish cunning, decided to make taxation more effective by introducing a tax on stills rather than produced and sold alcohol. Now the size of the tax depended on the volume of the cube.
The consequence of this case was the mass migration of Irish distilleries underground. So, at the time of introduction of a new law in the country it was in 1228 registered enterprises, in a year – 246, and in 1823 (when the Highlands of Scotland in general, there was no legal whiskey production) there are only 20.
Looking at the results, the British once again changed the system of taxation – now have to pay only for the alcohol produced. By 1835 legal production has been around 100, and the quality of the whiskey has grown significantly. It was a period of prosperity of the Irish whiskey industry – the demand for the domestic market and abroad was huge. Grace seemed to have descended on Ireland. But the historical stage there was a Capuchin friar father Theobald Matthew …
Father Matthew alone dealt a crushing blow green snake strength. His fiery sermons he was able to make 5 of 8 million Irish who lived then country, vow of abstinence from alcohol! Subsequently, it will repeat the feat in the US Carrie Nation, who believed that she – a messenger of the Lord, led a crusade against alcohol in the United States, which has resulted in a dry law in force from 1919 to 1933.
As a result of his father’s sermons Matthew Irish whiskey industry had a real knockdown. Soon, this was followed by a number of knockdowns, so devastating, that the return of Irish whiskey to the world stage began only in the late XX century. It did not help the Irish invention – a distillation column, which allowed 24 hours a day, 365 days a year to produce high purity alcohol. Rather, this invention helped, but … the Scots. With it, they have developed large-scale production of blended whiskey, soon conquered the world.
While many have attempted to improve the process of distillation. The first was a Scot Robert Stein, who in 1827 patented the first alembic. Theoretically, it was very effective, but in practice, processes it was difficult to control.
Three years later, in 1830, the Irish Aeneas Coffey offered his version of continuous distillation unit, which proved to be more practical and economical. In contrast to the invention, Stein, designed only to work with malted (germinated) barley, it can work with any grain, but the resulting light, almost neutral strong alcohol, was very far from the heavy, fragrant, full-bodied whiskey stills.
The Scots, having mastered the invention Coffey went towards the creation of blended whiskey, combining malt whiskey produced in pot stills with grain whiskey obtained by distillation apparatus at Coffey. The Irish also chose to follow the path of megalomania, began to create the world’s largest stills.However, with time machines Coffey also found its application in the country, albeit not on such a scale.
In the second half of the XIX century formed the largest manufacturers of Irish whiskey. International trade was carried out of the port cities of Belfast, Cork, Dublin and Derry. However, Matthew’s father, a continuous distillation and political upheavals made the black business – the beginning of XX century, the world market for Ireland have been closed.
When the long struggle for independence from Great Britain was unsuccessful, Ireland had an economic embargo in the bargain and soon all was not able to sell its whiskey, as in almost all the markets where the drink consumed, dominated by the British. The resulting niche quickly took Scotch whiskey, which is produced by the time in large quantities and of excellent quality.
Ultimately, the only Irish whiskey consumers themselves become Irish. The once-powerful industry is experiencing hard times. By the middle of the last century, hundreds of distilleries that existed at the end of the XIX century, there are only three in South Ireland (Republic of Ireland) – John Jameson and John Powers in Dublin, Cork Distillers Company in Cork, and two – in Northern Ireland.
The only way to survive was to unite. March 8, 1966 John Jameson, John Powers and Cork Distillers Company merged into Irish Distillers Limited (IDL).
In 1988, as a result of complex combinations and maneuvering between the giants alcohol business as Grand-Metropolitan Gilbey, Seagram and Allied Domecq (while Allied-Lyons), IDL was acquired by the French company Pernod Ricard.
In 1987, the Irish government has sold one of the state-owned enterprises for the production of technical and food alcohol Cemici Teoranta Cooley Peninsula.Mostly plant with ten distillation column made from potato alcohol additive to gasoline, but also drove food alcohol (which, in particular, was a member of Bailey’s Irish Cream and vodka Smirnoff).
Entrepreneur Dr. John Teling, decided to create the first independent production of whiskey in Ireland, along with several partners bought and reconstructed distillery, spending 300 thousand Irish pounds. But it was the most insignificant part of the expenses which he would in the next few years.
Initially, whiskey in Scotland, the monks began to make medical purposes
The new plant called Cooley Distillery. For respectability were bought the rights to a number of old brands of Irish whiskey, restored the tradition of double distillation and use of malt, peat-smoked.
Pernod Ricard competitors were not needed, and the French did their best to buy Cooley Distillery. And for anybody not a secret that after the purchase of production destroy – what you need is technological diversity, when it was decided that the Irish whiskey must be distilled three times and deprived of peaty taste.
Implementation of this plan would put a barrier to the promotion of Irish whiskey in the world market. Things were going badly the new company, however, Pernod Ricard was willing to pay 24.5 million pounds for the Cooley Distillery, only to remove them from the scene. But the deal canceled antitrust agency.
Position Cooley was more than deplorable – the company’s debt to depositors and banks amounted to almost 6 million pounds. A number of producers and distributors of alcohol from the United States, Germany and France came to the rescue by buying a significant portion already produced and still festering whiskey. Out of debt the company was able to get out only in 2000, forcing the judges take a fresh look at the world of Irish whiskey that the arrival of Cooley became more interesting and varied.
Now, we go back a few centuries ago, in the mountains of Scotland. The first production of whiskey in Scotland began to monks who produced it for medical purposes. Scots firmly believed in the possibility of miraculous medical uisge beatha, and in 1505 a monopoly on distilling in Scotland has been given the Guild of Surgeons of Edinburgh and barbers. The most popular remedy for colds in Scotland so far – it’s not an aspirin, and “Toddy” – a hot drink of whiskey.
In 1707, Scotland “passed” its political independence by signing union with England. After 5 years, the British taxed the whole malt used to make beer and whiskey. From this point in the Highlands began the golden age of brewing and the fight against tax which, in the end, was lost, but will bring a lot of thrills both sides.
Producers on the flat part under the watchful eye of tax inspectors had, observing “tax malt” whiskey drive low-malt, and therefore – the worst quality.That is why the whiskey from Highlands inaccessible to tax authorities is traditionally considered the best – do it “right”, following the ancient technology.
Initially English excise officers (analogue current tax police) – well-armed and trained regular troops – made preventive raids in parts of the Highlands, which were real fights with peaceful Scottish Bootleggers. Over time, when they were the roads and the number of excise officers reached a critical mass, they were simply lodged at each distillery, where the enforcement of laws controlling production volumes.
Ready whiskey poured into barrels and sent to the excise warehouse (bonded warehouse), which is sealed by an excise officer. Tax is paid only whiskey produced after exposure, before the sale; During this time, the amount of alcohol in the barrel could be substantially reduced by evaporation, dripping barrelsand so on. d.
To complete control in the XIX century, each distillation apparatus was fitted with a special device, the so-called “safe alcohol» (spirit safe), through which the entire expels alcohol. Try distilled was impossible – all operations (cutting off the head fraction of the average, and the direction of them in different containers and tanks, mixing alcohol with the new water and so on. D.) The master of distillation conducted by eye, without organoleptic control alcohol. He controlled the process and regulate the alcohol flows, watching them through the window, “alcohol safe.” Thus, relying on his instincts, Master Distiller then reached the highest peaks of qualification moonshiner.
In place of this creepy installations soon came above continuous distillation apparatus Toffee, opening a new golden page in the history of Scotch whiskey.
Around this time – from the beginning of the XIX century – there are such major manufacturers blends like Johnnie Walker & Sons, George Ballantine & Sons, James Buchannan & Sons, Arthur Bell & Sons, John Dewar & Sons, Matthew Gloag & Sons, Justerini & Brooks, and others. At the end of the XIX century were created by major brands of blended Scotch whiskey, and now occupies a leading position in the global alcohol market.
In addition to continuous distillation huge impact on the Scotch whiskey industry, and its popularization in the world’s major markets had phylloxera (Phylloxera vastatrix) and Prohibition in the United States.
Phylloxera – grapevine aphid – in the period from 1858 to 1863 destroyed all the vineyards in France and permanently deprived of their usual wealthy British brands – in fact the vine beginning to bear fruit long after the new planting.Finding an adequate substitute for the British were surprised to find that drink, often surpassing the taste of brandy range and variety of choices they make right at hand, in Scotland. For Scotch whiskey has opened a new big market that has spread to all the colonies huge at the time of the British Empire.
In the XIX century the popularity of whiskey in Britain has increased due to the vine aphid
In 1920, after ratification by the US Congress of the infamous 18th Amendment to the Constitution was introduced prohibition, which operated for 13 years (from 1919 to 1933). As a result, even those who had never abused alcohol, began to hunt for the forbidden fruit, and the mafia that controlled the smuggling and illegal production of alcohol in the United States, earned those same billions of dollars, which lives and now, occasionally adjusting his position assembled with gambling, the control of prostitution, drugs and arms trafficking. During the term of Prohibition the American police could not cope with smuggling. Most of whiskey smuggled into the United States, was Scottish and was delivered across Canada and the Caribbean.
Today, across the globe, in every bar or store you can find at least a couple of brands of Scotch whiskey – the most popular alcoholic beverages in the world.
The history of whiskey can tell as Canada, the US and Japan.
The official history of Canadian whiskey began in 1794, when the British government issued the act “On the imposition and collection of duties with stills.”By the time Canadians were drinking very seriously. Everywhere immigrants making their way, there were roadside taverns and hotels, which served whiskey.And the settlers tried to drive his whiskey from everything that came to hand – oats, rye, corn, peas. They did not have time to build a malt house, malt mills for peremolki, so did everything in a hurry.
In 1840, Canada has already been registered 200 small distilleries, who paid taxes, and 96 breweries. For example, in Toronto during this period for every 137 inhabitants, one tavern, and in the city of Port Hope, with a population of 2,500 people was 8 distillation industries.
In 1840 it was passed the first law on excise taxes on whiskey production – new tax initially was 2 pence a gallon of whiskey, and a few years up to 6 pence (at that time it was a lot – about 30% of the cost). As a result, a process of consolidation of facilities – instead of hundreds of small distilleries appeared several companies that it was easier to carry a heavy tax burden.
Large companies have monopolized the production of whiskey in Canada, refused to low-performing stills in favor of modern devices Continuous Coffey. So Canadian whiskey from the very beginning of its commercial history was light alcohol, unlike whiskey in Ireland, Scotland and America.
The first large-scale production of whiskey was founded in 1799 by John Molson in Montreal. Now about it recalls only a popular Canadian beer Molson. The company Molson drove the whiskey of 68 years and then switched to beer production. Meanwhile, in 1799 it was released 250,000 gallons (1 gallon is equal to almost 4 liters) of whiskey. Very powerful at the time production. Molson who first started the export of Canadian whiskey into Europe – in 1821 the company posted its cargo of whiskey to their historic homeland, England.
The official history of Canadian whiskey began in 1794
Other large-scale production of whiskey comes from the United States founded by John Philip Wiser. Perhaps he was the first to apply the term “Canadian whiskey” when exhibited his whiskey Wiser’s Canada Whisky in Chicago at the World’s Fair in 1893.
Another American, Hiram Walker, attracted by the low cost of the Canadian land, bought land in the area of Ontario and founded their business. In 1853, his company Windsor Distillery & Flouring Mill began work – mill and distillery were built away from major settlements, but as the popularity of whiskey production expanded, and soon began to occur around the city, which was called Walkerville – on behalf of the owner of the company.
In 1898 Hiram Walker became the first whiskey producers in North America, has received from the royal family of the right to use the coat of arms of the British Empire on the label of his whiskey Canadian Club, since it was the first Canadian whiskey, which was delivered to the royal court.
Despite the fact that Canadian whiskey is much younger than the Irish or Scottish, the consumption of whiskey, and along with it and the industry of the drink evolved in Canada so rapidly that in 1870, among the God-fearing women who are concerned about binge drinking, born movement The National Women’s Temperance Union (National Union of Women for moderation and temperance), which sets the task of introduction of Prohibition.
Basically preachers Prohibition were Methodists and Protestants or members of one of the branches of Protestantism – presbuteriantsy Baptists. Catholics and Anglicans were more tolerant. Even during the heyday of Prohibition in Canada alcohol was easy to get – his prescribed in pharmacies from heart disease.
In 1921, a year after the introduction of Prohibition in the United States, Canadians produce 11 million liters of absolute alcohol, and in 1929, at the height of Prohibition – already 44 million. Canadians consume less than one tenth of what is produced. As a result, today, the Canadian whiskey in the United States sold more than bourbon, the national liquor USA.
Accurate historical data about how the American whiskey has been created, no.However, it is known that before the discovery of America by Europeans, the Indians grew corn and made of her home-made beer, art distillation they did not know, and spirits they did not produce. He started to do the first settlers who came from Ireland and Scotland, arrived in New England in 1620.
They knew nothing about the corn, and familiar to Europeans cereals – barley, wheat, rye – have not been able to sow. Alcohol, however, was the most important part of the diet in those violent times. Therefore, from molasses, which is brought here from Barbados and other Caribbean territories, they began to chase rum, probably first distilled spirit in North America. On the West Coast acted hundreds of productions.
Rom sent to Africa, where he was exchanged for slaves, who were taken to Latin America and exchanged for sugar, molasses and spices, and the resulting materials were delivered to New England. And so on to infinity. Rather, until 1808, when the US was banned the importation of slaves. The infamous “triangle” – the largest business scheme of the time – half a century functioned.
By the time the Celts (Scots and Irish, which in the XVIII century in the United States arrived at least a quarter of a million), and the Germans and Dutch already being persecuted whiskey, in the east – from the rye, which perfectly caught the new lands, and to the west, in that part of the United States, which is now the state of Kentucky, from the local plant corn. These territories “discovered” a pioneer Daniel Boone during an expedition in 1767.
Check the state began in 1774. The settlers had the right to take 400 acres of land on condition that build on this site a small hut, and will be engaged in agriculture – the cultivation of corn. By the end of the XVIII century in the territory, which will soon become the state of Kentucky, has a population of 350 thousand people. And many of the new settlers, farmers drove the whiskey – it was easier and more profitable to store the harvest in liquid form.
Accurate information about how whiskey was created by the US, there is no
Who was the first to drive the whiskey in Kentucky, is unknown. The first documentary evidence refers to 1783, when Evan Williams, whose name is immortalized in one of the most popular Bourbon Evan Williams, founded and registered its production in Louisville. Although probably we engaged in this business pioneer Daniel Boone and exactly – his relative Watt.
The Honorable Elijah Craig, who is credited with the glory of the creator of bourbon in Kentucky settled only in 1786. His name also lives in the name of bourbon. In general, many of the names of the earliest manufacturers of Bourbon become brands – Elijah Pepper (James E. Pepper) settled in Kentucky in 1776, Robert Semyuelz (Maker’s Mark) – in 1780, Jacob Beam (Jim Beam) and Basil Hayden (Basil Hayden Bourbon) – in 1785 Daniel Weller (WL Weller Bourbon) – in 1794.
Japanese whiskey – the youngest in the world. Unlike other countries, where it is made traditionally, born of Japanese whiskey is known for sure – 1923. Since there was a story of whiskey – as a prototype for your product the Japanese chose Scotch whiskey, the most traditional and conservative and at the same time the most diverse and varied from all currently existing in the world. Scots outdo the Japanese could not, but now the Japanese are doing a great whiskey, close to the Scottish style.
Japan has become one of the last on our planet major crops, “open” to foreign influence. Although contacts between Europeans and the Japanese since the XIV century there were many, something that can be called open “cooperation” between the two cultures, it began in 1853 with the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan. Soon in Japan they laid the foundation for the production of whiskey. Rather, as well as in Scotland and Ireland, first learned how to make a beer on the Western model. C brewing – and, correspondingly, with barley, the main ingredient of whiskey – the Japanese introduced the Dutch and Germans in the XVIII century. In 1869, the Americans built the first brewery, which after some time become a global alcohol giant Kirin.
The Japanese came to the case study of Western culture and technology from government positions – for public funds they sent to Germany the researchers, who were to master the technological features of the production of beer. Around this time began to grow barley – Japan unconventional cereals – for the production of beer. Soon the production of barley malt reached volumes sufficient to start producing their own whiskey.
In 1917 Setsu Shusey Seiji, head of Settsu Shuzou, specialized in sweet wines and spirits, planned to establish production of whiskey. I decided to begin to send the student in Scotland. As a result of the selection of potential staff at the University of Osaka choice fell on a young man named Matasaka Taketsuru. His family for generations made sake, rice wine, or rather, rice vodka, sake, because the technology includes a distillation operation.
At the foot of the Japanese whiskey industry rose only after World War II
Not graduated from university (at that time he was studying in the last year), thanks to the whim of the new employer’s 23-year-old Matasaka travels to Scotland to master the art of making this whiskey. For two years he studied chemistry at the University of Glasgow, she spent some time at the distillery in Campbeltown and Hazelburn Longmorn in Shpeysayde.
Matasaka during his stay in Scotland, renting a room from a local doctor, and, as often happens with foreigners, fell in love with Aboriginal – one of the daughters of the owner. In 1921, he returned home with his wife. The young Scot Rita Cowan went to the favorite Japanese in its historic homeland, where he helped establish the production of Scotch whiskey for the type. When Matasaka returned to Japan, the country reigned depression, and his employer does not have the money to build the distillery.
Grandiose plans failed to implement another company, Kotobukiya.Subsequently, the company, renamed the Suntory (after the founder Shindzhiro Tori), has become the largest in Japan and one of the largest in the world.
Scientist and distiller Matasaka Taketsuru participated in the creation of two major Japanese whiskey production – in 1923 under his leadership the city Yamazaki was built a distillery for the company Suntory, which is “outstanding” first alcohol in 1924, and in 1934 – in the town of Yoichi to own company Nikka.Японский виски
At the foot of the Japanese whiskey industry rose only after the Second World War. By the sixties of the last century Japanese temples found throughout the world.
Many Japanese blended brands contain certain – more or less – the percentage of malt Scotch whiskey. Japanese alcoholic giants owns a number of large and well-respected Scottish distilleries producing whiskey – Tomatin, Bowmore, Ben Nevis.