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Melee weapons from Qatar

A huge number of unusual cold steel of various types and forms of Qatar.
All this you can find out through the article by Dmitry Samoilov “Blade of the god of death.”
In continuation there are a lot of interesting things.
 (109 pics + text)

 

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“Qatar (or dzhamadhar) refers to jog knives, also called tychkovymi or knives Fisted grip. very name means” the sword of the god of death “or” the language of the god of death. “They met in China, Indonesia, in Europe, but the most widely received in India.
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Rise “era” catarrh accounts for 16-18 cc., although they appeared much earlier. Back in the 14th century. Arab traveler Ibn Battuta, described one of the scenes, uvidennyhim in India: “The villagers surrounded him, and one of them gave him a thrust with catarrh. So called iron weapons resembling ploughshare plow, hand inserted into it so that the forearm is protected; blade is an extension of your hands and has a length of two cubits (that is about 900 mm), and the impact this deadly weapon. ” Qatar was used primarily for stabbing. The blade in the form of an isosceles triangle with a wide base provides good striking effect. This blade is allowed to apply severe stab wounds that resulted (at least!) To a rapid loss of blood, such wounds do not close, and tighten them by hand was impossible.Most often, the blade catarrh had an isosceles triangle
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although there are other forms of catarrh blade and even with a few blades.
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blade length can vary widely, from 10 cm to one meter or more.
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Generally, a diamond-shaped cross-section blade, characteristic of stabbing weapons. From the base of the blade depart two plates (at least two bars) running along the forearm. They are either parallel or diverge at a slight angle. At a certain distance from the blade, these plates are connected by two cross-beams that act as handles. Sides served several functions. First, they are to some extent protected the wrist and can be used to parry the opponent’s weapon. Second, in combination with bracers or other protective equipment as they formed a design like tires, affixed to the arm with a broken, thus further limiting the mobility of the wrist and making a bunch of hand-guns tougher. Qatar is held not by the force of compression fingers, as is the case with traditional weapons handle: the fingers lock the handle in his hand, forming a rigid mechanical design. Reliability retention catarrh will not decrease, even if the hand and arm are wet.
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compared with a conventional suspension arm at the wrist joint is significantly reduced, due to a restriction of its mobility, and the load carrying direction. The blade has the same direction forearm that provides maximum attachment force thrust. The handle is actually based on the base of the palm. This is especially important when hit hit a solid target (armor or bone), as it allows virtually painless and absolutely reliably absorb the impact. In the case of the dagger hilt with the usual reaction force falls mainly on the rather weak muscles and bones of the toes. The handle formed by two cross members, the most common, although there are some samples of the stick and more cross members. This design solves one of the major problems encountered while keeping jog knives, namely turning of the handle in his hand under the influence of a force directed in the plane of the blade. In rare specimens of catarrh with a handle in the form of a cross, this problem is solved with the help of a large thickening (in the form of a plate) placed in the middle of the handle.
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In addition, the handle of such structures is usually not in secheniine circle and oval. Specific thickening in the middle of the handle resemble traditional Nepalese khukri knives. This thickening is to prevent longitudinal movement of the hands on the handle. Occasionally there are Cathars made ​​in the south of India, which are designed to handle the winding rope, but most of the samples do not require such a “revision.” We know that sometimes before the fight catarrh tied to the arm.The collection of Indian museums have catarrh with special straps for fastening to the arm, and the Cathars with the holes in the handle to pass the rope.
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Binding served not only as a symbol of the fight until death or victory, but also a good method to prevent the loss of weapons in a protracted battle: the reliability of retention catarrh tied to the arm, almost independent of the degree of fatigue warrior. The possibility of applying the powerful impact, including on a hard target, led to the fact that many of the samples met the Cathars as a weapon to pierce armor. These “anti-armor” Cathars have a characteristic thickening of the blade near the tip, providing additional hardening of the most loaded at a prick site.
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As noted above, the design features of catarrh determine its amazing properties in thrust. However, chopping and sweeping attack them ineffective. Some species of catarrh created with the obvious intention to compensate for this deficiency, such as catarrh with a curved blade.
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This design certainly increases the cutting properties of the weapon, but as a result of withdrawal of the tip from the axis of the blade there is a significant loss of efficiency thrust. Another option is to use the blade with a special cutting geometry. Some of the Cathars have a wavy cutting edge like the European Flamberge or Malay kris.1anti_01anti_02
Other – blade with a double bend, its shape reminiscent of a scimitar or a traditional Indian dagger “bichva.” There are also Cathars, the cutting edge of which consists of a set of semi-circular notches sharpened, strikingly reminiscent of modern serreytornuyu sharpening knives.3anti_01
It is interesting to drop catarrh “dzhamadhar selikani,” which means “having three blades.” The design feature of this type is a special mechanism actuated by squeezing crosspieces forming the handle.
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The mechanism reveals the blade into two halves, which diverge at an angle as scissors, so in English literature this design is called “catarrh-Scissors» (scissors-katar). This opens the third blade, for which the hollow halves of the main blade in the retracted position is a foot.
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And there is this kind is not a single item. Central blade is usually too short to make it usable. The halves of the main blade are too thick because the need to accommodate the folded position in a central blade. As a result of folding catarrh is not practical for the stabbing. Clear historical evidence describing the method of use of the catarrh, no. One hypothesis (vyskazyvaemayai in domestic and foreign literature) is that such a catarrh opened inside the opponent’s body, greatly increasing the striking effect. Believe in such difficult because of the force required for opening of catarrh, very much. It is not difficult to imagine how it will increase if Qatar will be shipped in the human body. Moreover, the mechanism has a return spring catarrh, lapping half the blade as soon as the pressure on the handle will be removed.
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Another hypothesis seems more convincing. According to her, “dzhamadhar selikani” is an analog of the European drop-dagger “Dag shpringklinge.” Such a dagger held in the left hand and the right time, revealing him to make a trap for the enemy’s blade. Of course, we are not talking about how to break the enemy’s blade or snatch weapons from the hands. This trap is designed primarily to delay the return of the blade of the enemy, creating a favorable momentdlya attack the main weapons in his right hand.
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In the manuscript Abul Fazl Allami Cathars referred to several spikes, designed for maximum damage on hit.
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A large number of such samples submitted in various collections, says that the design was quite common. The literature describes another kind of catarrh with three blades. This weapon is actually catarrh and two daggers held forward and reverse grip. The main blade has a traditional triangular shape, and the two sides resemble Indian daggers bichva and directed almost perpendicular to the main.
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In 1617 cc. in Tanzhore, Mysore and several other counties in the south of India Cathars were extended with an additional shield to protect hands, squeeze the handle. They are known as “beradzhamdeda” that is “bringing death”.
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Cover often had the shape of a cobra with a bloated kapyushonom.Inogda plate was covered with openwork holes like garde Portuguese rapiers. Usually, such a catarrh used as a primary weapon in combination with protective gloves or armor, cover your arm from wrist to elbow, on the left while holding a round shield.Many experts are of the opinion that these are the Cathars with a long blade and advanced protection brushes were intermediate in the evolution of catarrh sword “stalemate.”
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Many of the Cathars in the 16th century. fabricated as a monolithic structure, in which the blade and handle sostavlyayutodno whole.
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In the later samples of the blade is usually fastened to the handle with riveted joint.
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more stiffness blade attached special longitudinal ribs. The grooves on the blade catarrh perform a variety of functions. First, they can facilitate the design, and secondly, the use of grooves (in case of manufacturing by forging) allows smith redistribute material and make a wide blade at the bottom, using a small amount of metal. Third, by using grooves blade portions will have different thickness and therefore different to warm up and cool down during thermal treatment.Ultimately, this will result in different parts of the blade of divergent strains, thereby increasing its strength properties.
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blades for catarrh traditionally used Indian damask (cast damascus) or vutts.
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Carbon content therein 1.52%. This material is a metallic composite, in which a soft metal matrix tested “fibers” are formed accumulations very hard spherical grains of iron carbide (cementite). Due to its unique structure, vutts combines two properties, which are considered in metallurgy opposite, hardness and toughness. Cementite grains facing the surface of the cutting edge is formed on a micro-saw or in other words, peculiar mikroserreytor. This ensures outstanding cutting performance of the blades vuttsa.
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The traditional production technology vuttsa was lost in the middle of the 18th century. Numerous studies have restored a common sequence of actions and explain it from the point of view of modern science. For the first time in Europe, metal composite, the chemical composition and structure similar vuttsu was obtained in 19. Russian metallurgist PP Anosov, but the technology is applied to them, was the fusion of iron with graphite and differed from that of the descriptions used by the Indians. It is known that there are several methods Indians manufacturing vuttsa: either directly from iron ore and iron. In an earthen vessel (cup) fit iron (or two types of iron or iron ore), leaves, glass, charcoal, and possibly other minor components. The vessel was plastered over with clay, mixed with rice husks. Then it was subjected to heat, which lasted several days. In the process of heating the glass is melted and formed a flux linking the slag and iron protects against oxidation. The leaves were isolated by heating hydrogen, which speeds up the process of carbonization of iron. In crucible organized itself iterative process in which iron is absorbed carbon, reducing its melting temperature and, in turn, allowed to absorb a further portion of the carbon. Thanks to the accurate calculation of the time, the Indian master can stop the process at a time when the molten iron with a high content of carbon swam small pieces of low-carbon iron. Cool and breaking the crucible, the master received ingot vuttsa.
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This was followed by the process of forging and heat treatment of the blade.
closing stage were polished and etched surface of the blade with the composition of fish bile, palm resin, goat and horse milk. As a result of the fact that areas with varying carbon content differently be polished and etched differently, appeared on the surface pattern of the bright lines corresponding to the fibers of cementite on a dark background.
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All the manufacturing sequence from beginning to end saturated items, deviation from which would lead to failure of the process. First, it is extremely important components: the crucible is required for a special kind of clay, use the leaves of a particular plant, coal must also be obtained from a specific type of wood. It was found that iron ore should contain molybdenum or vanadium impurities, forming the basis for the formation of clusters of cementite particles. Second, an accurate control of temperature and duration of all stages of the process. Third, plays the role of what the blade cool during quenching, as well as the way in which the site begins to sink the blade into the cooling structure. About phenomenal opportunities blades of steel vutts legends attributing such blades ability to dissect a single blow and body armor under it, hew stones, cut thrown in vozduhshelkovy scarf, bend almost in the ring and then straightened without any harm to himself. All these great features are based on physical phenomena, many of which are devoted to the study of Russian and foreign scientists. For example, in the works V.P.Borzunova and VA Shcherbakov gives a very detailed explanation of the nature of the exceptional properties vuttsa. Of course, speaking of vuttse, we must remember that it is, first and foremost, about the manufacturing process, rather than a specific grade of steel with certain standard features. Obviously, vutts smelted by different masters, can vary greatly in quality and features.
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There Cathars alloy vutts whose tip is made ​​of steel and the other is welded to the main blade. In any case, whether it is done on the original plan or a repair, it says that the properties of the steel vutts used to manufacture these Cathars were inadequate to the task at hand.
many Cathars made ​​in the 16-18 centuries., use swords European swords and rapiers. Such blades in India called “Ferengi” (foreign). For example, catarrh in the collection of Tanjore Palace Armoury is on the blade of the famous Italian master stamp 16. Andre Ferrara (Andrea Ferara). Qatar also has a different blade from the European sword.
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Such Cathars are most common in the principalities, who drove an active trade with Europe. Were bought mostly broken or become unusable swords and rapiers, and part of the blade of which was for the manufacture of catarrh. Qatar, an employee of another sheath for catarrh, a rare variant of this type of weapon. A number of surviving examples of Qatari sheath is of little use for its intended purpose because of the lack of roundness of the tip and edges.
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One hypothesis for the use of the catarrh is based on the potential lethality dose exposure. With the help of Qatar sheath could cause accented hit, does not lead to a fatal outcome, and in the event of an escalation of the situation to extract and use a sharp invested catarrh. Something like the concept underlying the jackknife Gunting firm Spyderco.
Some Cathars in 17-18. with paintings of hunting scenes on the Tigers.
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In a number of paintings and illustrations to the books of the time catarrh is present in the hunting gear, and one is even used against the Tiger (who defends a wounded man had fallen out of the saddle). All this formed the basis for the erroneous proposition that the primary purpose of catarrh is to apply the finishing moves a wounded tiger, although it is clear that it makes more sense for this purpose, use a spear or other weapon from a safe distance. With all the implausibility of the hunting hypothesis, in some catalogs of antique catarrh passes as “a dagger to hunt tigers.”
characteristic of catarrh, as well as Indian arms in general, is the finish: the higher the status of the owner, the more complex and rich decor used masters.
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Indian gunsmiths used a variety of finishes, including a notch with gold and silver, cloisonné enamel, embossing. One of the most common finishing techniques applied to the Cathars, is “koftgari”: traditional Indian gold inlay technique.
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The gist of it is this: on the surface with a sharp metal tip to make a drawing of the deep scratches. These scratches and keeps hammering gold (less silver) wire. Thereafter, the surface is heated, then treated with a hammer. The final step is to polish the surface of the abrasive nature (Indian white porous stone).
Members of the military class Rajputs were practically inseparable from Qatar on medieval paintings depicting scenes of receptions and banquets, and the host and the guests are shown the Cathars in his belt. The Rajputs were catarrh from the right side.
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We used it in combination with a saber Talwar, and his use of European technology reminiscent of a dagger to his left hand. When working on the course they are mainly carried out parry and withdrawals blade enemy, striking his sword. On the approximation by blocking the sword of the enemy, catarrh of the thrust was applied. In the martial art of the Sikhs catarrh and is used as a primary weapon for the right hand, the left, there may be a small round shield. The popularity of catarrh in Nihang, a military Sikh sects, due to the fact that these weapons can implement the principle of “chatkha”, that is to kill with one blow. Code of Ethics Nihang, the speed of the murder symbolizes the lack of interest in the process of killing the victim: Nihang, killing necessary (enemy or animal) does not commit the crime. In the southern regions of India catarrh seen primarily as a means of self-defense in case of sudden attack and a melee weapon for the premises and thickets. Qatar were left in his belt over his sword. Preserved even combined dual sheath to wear swords and catarrh. Many paintings of the rulers of India, depicted with his right hand, lying on the arm of Qatar. This symbolized the readiness to repel any attack.
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The idea of using technology catarrh can be obtained by looking performances of masters of martial art Kalari-payyattu practiced on the southwestern coast of India (Kerala State).
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As far as technique of catarrh, most of the Indian military training systems used primarily by direct thrusts, rarely arcuate paths. When injections in the neck and short side crashes into the body catarrh often turns the blade parallel to the ground. When you hit a body that orientation blade allows it to pass between the ribs and neck at impact increases the probability of hitting the blood vessels, which are known to go vertical. Chop catarrh applied smoschnym investment case and remind vomnogom blow “hand-sword” in the art of classical karate. The most typical is the chop to the neck, running diagonally from top to bottom. There is also a special technique cuts navozvratnom driving after an unsuccessful lunge. Qatar, going side by side with the soldiers of India for several centuries, became a symbol of military valor.
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in 19. symbol catarrh often stood at the end of the signature at the Rajputs. It is also carved on monuments to the fallen in the name of duty. The symbolism of Qatar is also reflected in the form of colonial troops Britain: an emblem Cavalry Regiment 13th Rajputs The Shekhawati Regiment form two catarrh, crossed over the number 13.
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Qatar depicted on the flag symbolizes the principality of Mewar and the armed struggle for Indian independence. Image catarrh occurs on silver rupees 19. and marks the first district Bundi … ” And then those same wonderful Cathars, which I wrote at the beginning of the post: Here’s another “insert” – Qatar in Qatar:
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Qatar “triplex” – consists of two split halves, which are joined into one, and invested in the Qatari sheath:
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Curve (well, very crooked) Qatar
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Qatar semilezviyny unfortunately one photo and not very clear how this piece barbed keep the elbow that Mademoiselle prisobachivat?? Maybe someone knows unsubscribe in the comments.
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Qatar-scissors:
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Already familiar to you on the first picture in the paragraph about “vutts” catarrh in luxury damasskovyh sheath with a set of tools:
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A couple of Cathar-guns:
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Long catarrh with a luxurious, just drop dead guard that can fit an elephant, a horse, two peacocks, two antelope, grass, leaves, and there is something else:
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And now I come to catarrh with “windows”. What is it you’re about to see.
So, paired with the Cathars windows. In the window of one of catarrh shows, apparently, his master-raja, in the window of another – his beloved wife (or concubine)
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As the Cathars go further with erotic elements (and you thought to India: If it were not for the Kama Sutra, there would be there now a billion Indians), individuals with fragile psyche and children up to 18 years to look strongly recommend.
Katara with “windows , “in” windows “… well, see for yourself:
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Well, the most recent, some quite fancy catarrh in red velvet sheath, not only that of “vuttsa” and finished with “koftgari” and “windows”, and the Kama Sutra in the “windows”, so more and shot him in the blade stuffed for some reason … Cool thing turned out, check it out here:
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