Chimpanzees have an innate sense of justice
For a long time it was believed that justice – this is one of the unique innate qualities possessed only by people. However, it turned out that it has in chimpanzees, considered the closest relatives of humans.
A group of researchers taught primate play “Ultimatum”, where necessary, to one of the players who won, share it with a partner. That, in turn, if not satisfied with the decision of his friend, the right to refuse the carve-up, and then both players are left with nothing. For comparison, researchers conducted a test for children from two to seven years.
The experiment showed that monkeys better than children to recognize injustice, honestly shared the prize in more than 50% of cases. “We used this game because it is the gold standard for determining the human sense of justice. People usually generously share with a partner, offering him half the reward. The same thing we have established in the experiments with chimpanzees, “- said the study’s author, Dr. Darby Proctor from Georgia State University in Atlanta (USA).
According to experts in the field of animal behavior Frans de Waal, previously thought that the animals are not able to play the “ultimatum” as primates will always do the most selfish way. “We found that chimpanzees not only have a sense of justice, but also very similar in this respect to the man,” – said the scientist at Emory University in Atlanta, USA.
In Germany, the jailbreak is not illegal
Plan and escapes from prison in Germany not to allow, and, of course, is highly undesirable for the administration of prisons, but not illegal. If a person successfully escaped, but was later caught, he goes, “was serving” his term without attracting criminal liability and without paying any penalties. Or walk on the loose, is not caught.
The reason for the “softness” of the authorities is that the Germans believe that the desire for freedom – one of the basic human instincts, to deal with that useless and meaningless. Of freedom – the same unbeatable traction, as the instinct of self-preservation and reproduction, it is possible to prove an example of an animal caught and caged: until it is broken psychologically and not accustomed to captivity, the animal will attempt to do at any opportunity.
However, for his help in escaping relies penalty – imprisonment of up to five years.
Lack of sleep spoils you with privacy
Poor sleep dramatically affects your everyday relationships in pairs usually one of the partners, which is less often enough sleep or dreaming nightmares become grouchy, begins to complain about life and blaming the other is that it does not appreciate or do not pay enough attention. Researchers from the University of Berkeley wondered why.
The scientists asked 60 couples of all ages, from 18 to 56 years, keep a sleep diary. Participants had to write every morning, how well they slept, and added that they feel towards their partner. Also during the settlement of disputes in the family was conducted video recording. Those people whose sleep was worse are much more impatient and irritable.
There are several reasons why a person can not sleep – such as snoring or loud noises from the next room that prevent sleep. And some people are proud of the fact that sleep 4-5 hours a day and can go without sleep for a long time.
It was recalled that the full sleep is extremely important for the physical and mental health, and to feel vigorous and active person needs from 5 to 8 hours of sleep every night.
Today, one in three people in the world suffering from insomnia. Normally it poured only 40% of the population.
Where did the word “coin”?
The Roman goddess Juno Moneta had the title, which translated from Latin means “cautionary” or “counselor”. Near the temple of Juno on the Capitol were workshops where metal minted money. That’s why we call them the coins, and in English on this title was the common name of money – ‘money’. By the way, the original meaning of the word “coin” takes effect when we toss it in search of advice.
Figures coin of the Roman Empire about 1 century AD In the strict sense of the word it is not money, tokens, which paid off with prostitutes, but many traders gladly accepted them as payment for their goods, because in the evening for a couple of hours changed their love. Prostitutes were mostly slaves and did not understand Latin, and was drawn zhetonchiki what kind of service they were to render to the client.
The kiss on the lips
For a long time it was thought that a kiss on the lips came up with the Romans for many hundreds of years BC. In fact, the Romans just watched insects. They realized that at the time when insects are touching each other’s lips, there is an act of generosity and nobility, consolidating their society.
Romans until the end and did not understand the whole meaning of this touching, but decided to play it in order to achieve the cohesion peculiar nest.
The kiss on the lips mimics trofallaksiyu. But the real trofallaksiya – a regurgitation of social goiter and bringing her a gift, while the man a kiss – only a vague exchange of saliva.